pathophysiology of acne

hey everyone welcome to another medical
video in this tutorial we talk about the
pathophysiology of acne water makes up
60% of our body weight fluid losses
greater than 15% are usually fatal let
me ask you a question which organ
prevents the Sun from absorbing all of
our body water yes it is the skin
epidermis the outer layer of the skin is
somewhat waterproof due to the hard
keratin layer but it isn’t enough to
beat the Sun the dermis of the skin
contains sebaceous glands it secretes
waterproof sebum onto the skin’s surface
can you guess what substance gives the
waterproof ability to sebum have you
noticed how hard it is to remove oil
with water that’s because the lipid is
so hydrophobic so there’s no wonder
sebum is full of lipids mainly the
triglycerides sebaceous glands open into
hair follicles and from there sebum
reached the surface of the skin sebum
also carries the dead skin cells out of
the follicles everything works fine when
you are a child but when you hit puberty
testosterone levels increase suddenly
unfortunately testosterone increases the
sebum production but this is not enough
to produce acne there’s a protein called
keratin in the skin cells some people
produce this protein excessively due to
genetic predispositions
we call this hyper keratinization high
keratin content in the dead skin cells
glues the dead cells to one another the
mixture of high sebum and keratins block
the hair follicle giving rise to comedones
ins if the camdones are protected by
the skin we notice the white lipid
substance in acne that’s what we call
whiteheads but if the skin cover is lost
the melanin in the comedone is oxidized
to become darker we call them the
blackheads we all know too much lipid is
bad for our health but the bacteria
Propionibacterium acnes doesn’t seem to
know that it grows rapidly in the lipid
rich comedones the bacteria initiates an
inflammatory response and further
expands the comedones when they inflame
the dermis and get filled with pus we
get pustules if the inflammation expands
deep into the dermis where the nerve
roots lie we call them acne cysts they
are larger than the pustules and they
are painful because they are in contact
with the nerve roots and because of the
heavy inflammation they often caused
scars I’ll discuss the treatment options
in another video see you soon.

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